Tomato Farming – टमाटर की खेती कैसे करे
Tomatoes are usually harvested in the summer season. Hot and soft weather is needed for this. Tomato plant does not tolerate much cold and high humidity. More lightness affects its pigmentation, color and productivity. Due to the opposite weather, its cultivation is badly affected. Different types of different seasons should be needed for seed development, germination, flowering and fruit. Temperature below 10-degree centigrade and temperatures above 38 degrees centigrade slow down the development of the plant.
A tomato plant is grown between 10 to 30 degrees Centigrade, but the best increase is in the temperature of 21 to 24 degrees Centigrade. Temperatures below 16 degrees and above 27 degrees are not considered suitable. Tomato plant does not tolerate crust and this crop needs less and moderate rainfall. Also, it gives good results in the average temperature of 21 to 23 degrees. Due to excessive water pressure and long duration, there is a crack in the fruit of tomatoes. If the fruit gets good light during the fruit, then the tomatoes become dark red.
Varities of Tomato
Arka Saurabh, Arka Vikas, Arka Aahuti, Arka Ashish, Arka Abha, Arka Aalok, H S 101, H S 102, H S 110, Hissar Arun, Hissar Lalima, Hissar Lalit, Hissar Anmol, K.S 2, Narendra Tomato 1, Narendra Tomato 2, Pusa Raid Plum, Pusa Early Dwarf, Pusa Rubi, KO – 1, KO-2, KO-3, S-12, Punjab Chuhara, P K M 1, Pusa Rubi, Shakti, L L 120, Pusa Gaurav, S 12, Pant Bhaar, Pant T 3, Solan Gola and Arka Meghali.
F 1 Hybrid
Arka Abhijeet, Arka Shreshth, Arka Vishal, Arka Vardaan, Pusa Hybreed 1, Pusa Hybreed 2, Koth 1 Hybreed Tomato, Rashmi, Vaishali, Rupali, Naveen, Avnish 2, MTH 4, Sadabhaar, Gulmohar and Sonali.
Different Steps Temperature
Number Minimum Appropriate Highest
Seed Germination 11 16-29 34
Development of Plant 18 21-24 32
Development of Fruit 10 15-17 30
Night 18 20-24 30
Development of Red Colour 10 20-24 30
Types of Soil for Tomato Cultivation
Tomato cultivation is good in mineral soil and smooth silt soil, but the best-drained soil for tomato plants is soil moist. The upper part of the soil should be slightly moist and the soil below it is of good quality. The depth of soil should be 15 to 20 cm for good crop. Khari can hold root in soils and it is necessary for deeper cultivation for better yield.
Tomatoes generally have pH, which is a crop bearing acidity and alkalinity. The pH of 5.5 to 6.8 is normal for its cultivation. Tomato crop is good in acidic soils with adequate nutrients. Tomatoes generally have the ability to tolerate acid pH of 5.5 pH. Due to the quantity of salt, the amount of soil and water which is sufficient for the production of tomato is suitable for tomato cultivation. Soil with high humidity and high organic ingredients without nutrients is not good for its cultivation. At the same time, if organic matter is found in the soil containing mineral content, it gives good results.
Selection of Seed for Tomato Farming
Bad and broken seeds are sorted after seed production. Sowing seeds should be of excellent quality in every way. In the shape, a uniform, strong and quick seedling seed is selected for sowing. Hybrid seeds with F1 generation that bear the opposite season also give quick and good crop.
Time of Sowing
- Tomatoes are usually harvested in any season
- It has three crops in the northern plains of the country, but in very cold terrain the rabi crop is not so good. Kharif crop in July, rabi crops in October-November and Zayed crops are grown in February.
- In the southern plains where there is no danger of pale, the first sowing is done in December-January. The second sowing is done in June-July and the third September-October and it is very important to take care of irrigation facilities.
Tomato seed and Transplant
Typically tomato is cultivated after ridge, ie high mounds and plowing in the plains. Due to open weather and irrigation during the sowing the plant becomes tight. The seed rate per hectare is 400 to 500 grams. The amount of 3 gram per kilogram of therm is necessary to prevent disease born with seed. For the treatment of seeds, b. 25 and 50 ppm. Chlorofenoxy acetic is very effective on nephthoxietic acid (BNOA), 5 to 20 ppm, gubernic acid (GA3) and 10 to 20 ppm and yields better results in tomatoes production.
Sowing for autumn crop is done in June-July and sowing for the spring season is done in the month of November. Sowing in hilly areas is done in March-April. The difference between the crops for autumn is 75 × 60 cm and the difference 75 × 45 cm for the spring is considered ideal.
Manure for Tomato Cultivation
At the time of preparation of land for cultivation, the compost should be properly mixed in 20-25 tonnes per hectare of good form of compost or soil. The fertilizer should be given 2O per hectare of 75:40:25 kg N: P2O5 ratio. Prior to planting, half quantity of nitrogen should be given, full quantity of phosphorus and half dose of potassium should be given. After 20 to 30 days of planting, a quarter of nitrogen and half the amount of potash should be given. The remaining quantity should be given after two months of planting.
- Tomato plantation should be done with a small flat land or less dig, as well as the availability of irrigation in it.
- Typically, in a heavy soil area, the plantation ridge is said to be in the high mountainous area. Especially during the rain there is a good harvest at such a place.
- In the condition of an uncertain type or hybrid, plantation is done with the help of two meter bamboo sticks. At the same time, large ridge area is kept 90 cm wide and 15 cm height.
Here is the distance between the plow drawn or the plant planted in the line is kept at 30 cm
How far is the distance between plants –
- In winter, the distance of 75 times 60 cm between plants is kept. At the same time, this gap is 75 times 45 cm in summer.
- Nursery preparation and care – –
For the sowing of tomatoes, the seeds of the ideal seed should be 60 cm wide, 6 to 6 cm long and 20 to 25 cm high. Muffled
- And the peg should be cleaned properly. The well-filtered form should be put in the yard manure and sand dunes. after that
- Plant her well. After that, add phytoene or dithenene M-45 to 2 to 2.5 grams per liter of water and put it in the pellet.
- After that draw a line of 10 to 15 cm parallels to the Kari. After that put the seeds in that line, press lightly, cover with sand and
- Cover with pallet at the end. Irrigation with Rosacon. Keep irrigating seeds of seeds twice a day till the germination is done. Of Seeds
- Remove the pallet after germination. When four or five leaves arrive, use a little thimat. Sprinkle sprouts with Metasistox or Theoden and Dithen M-45 in two to two and a half mL of water per liter.
- During the four weeks of the plantation, light weeding is necessary so that the rubbish can be removed from the farm. After each irrigation, when the soil gets dry, the soil is loosened with the help of a hoof. During this time any grass should be removed properly.
- Grass, black polyethylene and other elements with pallet are helpful in protecting moisture, rubbing and controlling diseases.
Manure for Tomato Farming
Good manure is used in a balanced manner according to the need for good production of tomatoes. Nitrogen is very important for tomatoes because its quality, size, color and flavor fills itself with sufficient amounts. This also brings sophistication tomatoes inside. The substantial amount of potassium for plant growth, yield and quality is equally important. In order to maintain adequate amounts of phosphorus in the plant during germination and planting, initially, mono ammonium phosphate (MAP) is necessary.
Availability of calcium in the soil is necessary to control acidity or alkalinity and nutrients. Essential nutrients require high-capacity compost in sandy soils. Before planting, 50 tonnes of farmyard should be added per hectare. Generally, tomatoes cultivate 120 kg nitrogen (N), 50 kg phosphorus (P2O5), and 50 kg potash (K2O) is necessary. Nitrogen should be given in separate dosages. During planting, the full amount of half nitrogen and phosphorus and the remaining left nitrogen is given after 30 days and 60 days. The analysis of soil and tissue should continue from the beginning to the end whether or not the amount of nutrients in the plant is in the correct amount and ratio.
The Ultimate Analysis of the Plant with Nutrients is the following
Nitrogen Phosphorus Potassium Calcium Magnesium Sulphur 4
% 0-5.6 0.30-0.60 3.0-4.5 1.25-3.20 40.65 0.65-1.4
PPM Mangnese Iron Boron Copper Zinc
%30-400 30-300 20-60 5-15 30-90