We are well aware that India is an agricultural country. In India, all types of cultivated varieties like pulses, oilseeds, gram, market, maize, rice and wheat etc. Potatoes, walnuts, cauliflower, carrots, peas, tomatoes, citrus fruits, etc. in vegetables. Similarly, mushroom cultivation is also practiced in India. Which is being done for the past 200 years.
In the recent past, states like Uttar Pradesh, Haryana and Rajasthan (in winter months) are also being cultivating mushroom. Earlier, its cultivation was limited to only Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir and Hill areas. Mashrum is the best source of protein, vitamins, minerals, folic acid. This is a good source of Iron essential for the patient suffering from bloodlessness.
There are three types of mushrooms –
- Button mushroom
- Dhingari (Ghongha)
- Puaal Mashroom (all types)
Button Mushroom is the most popular. Apart from farming, the mushroom can be cultivated on a small scale in a hut.
There are two types of Mushroom producers found in India mainly. First, the seasonal producer and the second, producing the whole year. Manufacturers of both types produce white mushroom for the domestic market and exports. Seasonal buttons are confined to mushroom producers temperate regions such as Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh hill areas, hill areas of Tamilnadu and mountainous areas of the northeast, where producers produce two to three crops of mushroom for the whole year Are there. Seasonal growers are also the producers of the northwest plains of India, who produce a winter crop of Mushroom and sell freshly.
Mushroom Market Prospects
The main consumers of Mushroom are Chinese food restaurants, hotels, clubs and homestays. In the big cities, the mushroom is sold through vegetable shops. The growing market of domestic and export and its taste and food prices create good and wide potential for mushroom cultivation.
Technological recollection or description of mushroom farming
(A) Preparation of Seeds (Masurum Seeds): Masuram seeds get ready in the markets. If the desire is expressed, then it can be prepared and sold commercially.
Preparation of Compost:
There are several types of mixes for the compost production and anyone who chooses to fit that enterprise or industry can choose. It is prepared using wheat and straw which contain many types of nutrients. In the artificial compost, wheat straw contains organic and abiotic and nitrogen nutrients. Horse sticks are mixed in organic compost. Compost can be constructed from a long or short compost method. Only those who have the option to pasteurized can adopt a shortcut method. The long method requires a reversal of 7 to 8 times after a certain interval during the 28 days period. Good compost is dark-brown, ammonia-free, light lubrication and 65-70 percent moisture.
Spew or extract (compost with seed): There are three processes to combine mushroom seeds with compost-
- Layer spew-compost is divided into a similar layer and the seeds are spread in each layer. The result of seed is in different layers.
- 3 to 5 cm of surface spew-compost is mixed again, the seed is spread and covered with compost.
- Open or direct spew-seeds are mixed with compost and pressed. A bottle of seed is sufficient for 35 kg of compost which spreads in 0.75 square meter area (approximately two trays). Therefore, the ratio of seed compost to 0.5 percent. In the crop room, the tray is placed in the queue and it is covered with the newspaper. Two percent of formulas are sprinkled on it. The desired room temperature is about 18 degree centigrade with 95 percent humidity.
Cover – Seed compost is covered with disinfected hay, rind, or white powder etc.
7-b Mushroom Production: In addition to the above-mentioned humidity and temperature, proper air communication of the room should be ensured.
- Mushroom appears in 30-35 days. This fungus fruit part starts to grow, it is cut off when its button tightens and stops. 8 to 10 weeks
- During one crop cycle, 10-kilogram mushrooms are grown per sq. Meter. The mashed Mushroom can be packaged for supply in the market.